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Dr. G. P. S. Raghava
Bioinformatic Centre


B-Cells B cells are one of the white blood cells (lymphocytes) mature in the bone marrow. B-cells are the generators of Humoral immunity, so called because it consist of soluble proteins found in the " Humor", (Blood). Every B-cells has an ImmunoGlobulin molecule on its surface, due to its genetics. Each of those ImmunoGlobulins recognize a unique antigenic determinants, called Epitope. Since each B-cell has a different Immunoglobulin,each will bind to a different epitope. When a B-cell's immunoglobulin bind to a epitope, it expand, resulting in many B-cells which recognize the same target. B-cells differentiate into
  • Plasma cells
  • Memory cells
Plasma cells will proceed to secrete vast quantities of ImmunoGlobulins, which will be identical to its parent's original surface. These immunoGlobulins will pass through the blood and attach to the foreign object, causing nutralization, cell lysis by complement, or antibody dependent Cell mediated Cytotoxity by non-specific effector cells.
Memory cells persist in the body for many years and in the event that the same organism returns, they will develop into Plasma cells much more rapidly than the original B-cells and proceed to secrete their ImmunoGlobulin.

Virus Viruses are simple, a cellular entities consisting of one or more molecule of either DNA or RNA enclosed in a coat of protein. More than 400 different viruses can infect humans. Some viruses can be transmitted through the air and directly or indirectly involve the respiratory system. Many also produce systemic disease. Most of these viruses are highly communicable and cause diseases such as chicken pox, influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syndromes and viral pneumonia. Some viruses are transmitted from host to host by direct contact and cause diseases such as AIDS, cytomegaloviruses inclusion disease, genital herpes, rabies and serum hepatitis.

Bacteria Bacteria are small and very simple in structure and have a plasma membrane. The cytoplasmic matrix typically contains several constituents that are not membrane-enclosed. Most bacteria can be divided into gram-positive and gram-negative forms on the basis of their cell wall structure and response to gram stain. Components like capsule and fimbraie are located outside the cell-wall. Of all the known bacterial species, only a very small number are pathogenic to humans. Most of the airborne diseases caused by bacteria involving the respiratory system. Examples include diptheria, Streptococcal disease, tuberculosis and whooping cough. Most of the direct bacterial diseases involve the skin or underlying tissues. Example includes anthrax, leprosy, syphilis. The feed-borne and water borne bacterial diseases are contracted when contaminated food or water is ingested.

Fungi Fungi are widely distributed and are found wherever moisture is present. Fungi exist primarily in the form of filamentous hyphae. A mass of hyphae is called mycelium. Although thousands of species of fungi are found in the environment, only 50 are capable of producing diseases in humans. The fungal diseases known as mycoses (Greek mykes, fungus), are divided into five groups according to the type of the infected tissue in the host: superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic and opportunistic mycoses. The opportunistic mycoses can create life-threating situations in the compromised host. Examples of those include aspergillosis, and candidiasis.

Protozoa Protozoa are animal like protists exhibiting heterophilic nutrition and various types of locomotory ability. About 20 different protozoa cause human diseases that afflict hundreds of millions of people throughout the world. Examples include amebiasis, giardiasis, malaria, pneumocyatis pneumonia, the hemoflagellate diseases, toxoplasmosis and trichomoniasis. There are over 150 million cases of malaria, at least 8 million cases of trypanosomiasis, 12 million cases of leishmaniasis and over 500 million cases of amebiasis in the world each year

Autoimmunity An immune response to the body's own cells and tissues. Human autoimmune disease can be divided into organ-specific and systemic disease. The organ specific diseases involve an autoimmune response directed primarily against a single organ or gland. Example includes Graves' disease, Mycocardial infarction. The systemic diseases are directed against a broad spectrum of tissues and have manifestations in a variety of organs resulting from cell-mediated responses and cellular damage caused by auto-antibodies or immune complexes. Example includes Rheumatoid arthritis and Systemic lupus erythematosus.

Allergy Allergic reactions are inflammatory reactions within the humoral branches of the immune system that lead to extensive tissue damage or even death. A type I hypersensitive reaction is induced by certain types of antigens, referred to as allergens, is mediated by IgE antibodies, whose Fc region binds to receptors on mast cells or blood basophils. Crosslinkage of the fixed IgE by allergen initiates a sequence of intracellular events leading to mast cell or basophil degranulation with release of Histamine, Serotonic which increase vascular permeability and smooth muscle contraction.